2.1 The Present Tense of the Verbs.
Most of the verbs in Lithuanian are "regular". The verbs in
Lithuanian are divided into 3 conjugations. The conjugation is
determined by the ending of the third person, present tense.
1st Conjugation: 3rd person ends in -a. Infin.: dirbti 'to work',
a dirbu -u
tu dirbi -i
jis dirba -a
mes dirbame -ame
jus dirbate -ate
jie dirba -a
ruoti to prepare
a ruoiu -iu
tu ruoi -i
jis ruoia -ia
mes ruoiame -iame
jus ruoiate -iate
jie ruoia- ia
2nd Conjugation: -i — Infin.: myleti 'to love'
a myliu -iu
tu myli -i
jis myli -i
mes mylime -ime
jus mylite -ite
jie myli -i
3rd Conjugation: -o — Infin.: skaityti 'to read
a skaitau -au
tu skaitai -ai
jis skaito -o
mes skaitome -ome
jus skaitote -ote
jie skaito -o
1) The 3rd person singular and the 3rd person plural are
always the same in all tenses in Lithuanian.
2) Plural forms can easily be formed by adding " -me" or "-te"
respectively to the 3rd person form.
3) As one can see, the pattern of accentuation in Lithuanian
is a complicated affair. For the present tense, the following
general rules could be drawn:
a) The 3rd person singular and all the persons in the plural
are stressed on the stem, never on the ending.
b) The 1st and the 2nd person singular will both be stressed
alike: either both on the ending or both on the stem.
(From this lesson on, the forms of the 1st person singular
and 3rd prs. will be given with the infinitive. Later, other forms
will be added.)
c) For details, see Grammar Appendix; for individual verbs,
see Lith.-English vocabulary.
2.2 Negation. The negative particle in Lithuanian is "ne." It usually
precedes that word which it negates. When it precedes a verbal
form, then it is written together with the verb. It is also written
together with adjectives and adverbs. It is usually not connected
with nouns, unless the particle ne gives the noun the opposite
meaning. "Nera" 'is not' is a contraction of "ne yra". With a negative
verb the direct object must be in the genitive, not in the accusative,
as is the case after a positive verbal form. More on negation:
2.3 Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns.
Possessive adjectives and pronouns are very easy to handle
in Lithuanian: for each person there is only one form for both the
possessive adjective and the possessive pronoun, and they are
a — I
tu — you, thou
jis — he
mes — we
jus — you
jie — they (masc.)
jos — they (fern.)
mano — my
tavo — your
jo — his
jos — her
musu — our
ju — their
ju — their
mano — mine
tavo — yours
jo — his
jos — hers
musu. — ours
jusu. — yours
ju. — theirs
ju — theirs
With the exception of "mano" and "tavo", the rest of these forms
are actually the genitives of the personal pronouns. Examples:
mano tevas — my father
mano mama — my mother
mano namai — my houses
itas namas yra mano. — This house is mine.