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Antrojioji pamoka

Lesson 2

GRAMMAR

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    2.1 The Present Tense of the Verbs.

    Most of the verbs in Lithuanian are "regular". The verbs in
    Lithuanian are divided into 3 conjugations. The conjugation is
    determined by the ending of the third person, present tense.

    1st Conjugation: 3rd person ends in -a. Infin.: dirbti 'to work',

    aš dirbu -u
    tu dirbi -i
    jis dirba -a

    mes dirbame -ame
    jus dirbate -ate
    jie dirba -a

    ruošti to prepare

    aš ruošiu -iu
    tu ruoši -i
    jis ruošia -ia

    mes ruošiame -iame
    jus ruošiate -iate
    jie ruošia- ia

    2nd Conjugation: -i — Infin.: myleti 'to love'

    aš myliu -iu
    tu myli -i
    jis myli -i

    mes mylime -ime
    jus mylite -ite
    jie myli -i

    3rd Conjugation: -o — Infin.: skaityti 'to read

    aš skaitau -au
    tu skaitai -ai
    jis skaito -o

    mes skaitome -ome
    jus skaitote -ote
    jie skaito -o

    NB.
    1) The 3rd person singular and the 3rd person plural are
    always the same in all tenses in Lithuanian.
    2) Plural forms can easily be formed by adding " -me" or "-te"
    respectively to the 3rd person form.
    3) As one can see, the pattern of accentuation in Lithuanian
    is a complicated affair. For the present tense, the following
    general rules could be drawn:

    a) The 3rd person singular and all the persons in the plural
    are stressed on the stem, never on the ending.
    b) The 1st and the 2nd person singular will both be stressed
    alike: either both on the ending or both on the stem.
    (From this lesson on, the forms of the 1st person singular
    and 3rd prs. will be given with the infinitive. Later, other forms
    will be added.)
    c) For details, see Grammar Appendix; for individual verbs,
    see Lith.-English vocabulary.

    2.2 Negation. The negative particle in Lithuanian is "ne." It usually
    precedes that word which it negates. When it precedes a verbal
    form, then it is written together with the verb. It is also written
    together with adjectives and adverbs. It is usually not connected
    with nouns, unless the particle ne gives the noun the opposite
    meaning. "Nera" 'is not' is a contraction of "ne yra". With a negative
    verb the direct object must be in the genitive, not in the accusative,
    as is the case after a positive verbal form. More on negation:
    See 4.3.

    2.3 Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns.

    Possessive adjectives and pronouns are very easy to handle
    in Lithuanian: for each person there is only one form for both the
    possessive adjective and the possessive pronoun, and they are
    indeclinable!

    Personal Pronoun

    aš — I
    tu — you, thou
    jis — he
    ji —she
    mes — we
    jus — you
    jie — they (masc.)
    jos — they (fern.)

    Possessive Adjective

    mano — my
    tavo — your
    jo — his
    jos — her
    musu — our
    jusu.— your
    ju — their
    ju — their

    Possessive Pronoun

    mano — mine
    tavo — yours
    jo — his
    jos — hers
    musu. — ours
    jusu. — yours
    ju. — theirs
    ju — theirs

    With the exception of "mano" and "tavo", the rest of these forms
    are actually the genitives of the personal pronouns. Examples:
    mano tevas — my father
    mano mama — my mother
    mano namai — my houses
    Šitas namas yra mano. — This house is mine.
    **

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